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Kållberg, Per
Publications (10 of 12) Show all publications
Schöld, S., Hellström, S., Ivarsson, C.-L., Kållberg, P., Lindow, H., Nerheim, S., . . . Wern, L. (2018). Vattenståndsdynamik längs Sveriges kust.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vattenståndsdynamik längs Sveriges kust
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2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

För att skapa ett samhälle väl anpassat till dagens och framtidens havsnivåer behövs besluts- och planeringsunderlag. Skyddsåtgärder och designnivåer för kustskydd är högaktuella frågor och många aktörer är intresserade av information kring potentiella maxnivåer för vattenstånd på olika tidshorisonter. SMHI har därför analyserat de mätdataserier för havsvattenstånd som idag finns tillgängliga från stationer längs Sveriges kust. Det primära syftet var att ta fram en metod för att beräkna det högsta möjliga havsvattenståndet vid mätstationer längs Sveriges kust. Metoden beskrivs i Schöld m.fl.(2017).

I föreliggande rapport beskrivs allmänt havsnivåer, mätdata, modeller och de resultat som erhölls från olika analyser av mätdata. Mätstationerna indelades i åtta olika kustområden inom vilka vattenståndet samvarierar. Det väder och de specifika stormbanor, som under de senaste 40 åren orsakat de högsta stormfloderna på olika platser längs den svenska kusten kartlades, och vattenståndsdynamiken vid olika mätstationer studerades.

Kortvariga höjningar av vattenståndet undersöktes, både med avseende på kraftiga vattenståndshöjningar orsakade av passerande väderssystem och med avseende på förhöjda utgångslägen, som i sin tur kan bidra till att stormfloder blir extra höga.

Det högsta beräknade havsvattenstånd som presenteras är de högsta möjliga stormfloder som skulle kunna inträffa baserat på empiriska analyser av mätdata vid de olika stationerna. Kända extrema händelser, som ägt rum före det att vattenståndet började registreras, ingår inte eftersom de inte har kunnat kvantifieras. Framtida förändringar av medelvattenståndet orsakade av den globala klimatförändringen behandlas inte i denna rapport.

Resultaten från studien visar att vattennivåerna i Östersjön generellt blir som högst i Bottenviken och i de södra delarna. De höga vattenstånden i större delen av Östersjön är inte lika höga som på västkusten och i Öresund. I Östersjön förefaller också utgångsläget, havsnivån före stormen, utgöra en större del av den resulterande vattenståndshöjningen. Vid flera stationer i de centrala delarna av Östersjön är havsnivån före storm i stort sett hälften av det högsta beräknade havsvattenståndet. Längs västkusten är istället de nettohöjningar som orsakas av rena stormeffekter den viktigaste stormflodskomponenten. Lokala förhållanden, till exempel om stationen är belägen vid en öppen, rak kust eller inne i en vik, påverkar hur högt vattenståndet kan förväntas bli på en viss plats.

Analyserna visar att stormfloder skulle kunna bli omkring 20-40 cm högre än hittills observerade maximala nivåer i olika kustområden. En osäkerhetsmarginal på runt +15 cm är lämplig att addera, särskilt i de områden där tidvatten förekommer.

Series
Oceanography, ISSN 0283-7714 ; 123
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Research subject
Oceanography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-4508 (URN)
Available from: 2018-02-22 Created: 2018-02-22 Last updated: 2018-02-22Bibliographically approved
Dahlgren, P., Landelius, T., Kållberg, P. & Gollvik, S. (2016). A high-resolution regional reanalysis for Europe. Part 1: Three-dimensional reanalysis with the regional HIgh-Resolution Limited-Area Model (HIRLAM). Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 142(698), 2119-2131
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A high-resolution regional reanalysis for Europe. Part 1: Three-dimensional reanalysis with the regional HIgh-Resolution Limited-Area Model (HIRLAM)
2016 (English)In: Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, ISSN 0035-9009, E-ISSN 1477-870X, Vol. 142, no 698, p. 2119-2131Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Research subject
Meteorology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-3037 (URN)10.1002/qj.2807 (DOI)000380941100019 ()
External cooperation:
Available from: 2016-09-01 Created: 2016-09-01 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
Bengtsson,, L., Gustafsson, N., Döös, B., Söderman, D., Moen, L., Thompson, T., . . . Kållberg, P. (2016). The Meteorological Auto Code (MAC) and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) at SMHI.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Meteorological Auto Code (MAC) and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) at SMHI
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2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Sweden was a pioneering country in the development of NumericalWeather Prediction (NWP). The worlds first operational numerical forecast was produced already in 1954 by the International Meteorological Institute in Stockholm. SMHI started a bit later, but in 1961 a long term program for development of NWP was initiated. The activities grew gradually during the 1960’s and resulted in a core component for the SMHI forecast services. An early challenge was to overcome the limited computational resources with slow computational speed, small memory size and primitive software support. It was necessary to compensate for these limitations with dedicated work and creativity. A core component in this work was the software system MAC (Meteorological Auto Code) that was developed by the NWP group at SMHI. The MAC system is described in detail in this report and it included all computational software needed for the weather service, for example numerical models, objective analysis techniques, automatic data extraction, quality control of observations as well as forecast products in graphical or digital form.

We hope that this report will provide the younger generation with some insight into the conditions for development of NWP during the 1960’s.

Abstract [sv]

Sverige var ett föregångsland inom numeriska vädderprognoser och den allra första operativa väderprognosen gjordes redan 1954 på det Internationella Meteorologiska Institutet i Stockholm. SMHI kom igång senare, men 1961 startade man ett långsiktigt program för NWP (numerical weather prediction). Projektet växte gradvis under 1960-talet och blev så småningom en central komponent i SMHIs prognostjänst. En utmaning under de tidiga åren var de begränsade dataresurserna med primitiv programvara, och med dagens mått begränsat minnesutrymme och låg beräkningshastighet. För att kompensera dessa brister krävdes både beslutsamhet och ett stort mått av kreativitet. Som en central komponent i arbetet utvecklade NWP-gruppen datorsystemet MAC (Meteorological Auto Code) som här beskrivs i detalj samt också alla de beräkningsprogram som krävdes för prognostjänsten. Detta inkluderade olika prognosmodeller, analys samt program för databehandling och observationskontroll samt produktion av prognosresultaten i grafisk eller digital form.

Det är vår förhoppning att f´öreliggande artikel skall ge den yngre generationen en inblick i hur det var att syssla med NWP under 1960-talet.

Publisher
p. 21
Series
RMK: Report Meteorology and Climatology, ISSN 0347-2116 ; 117
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences Climate Research
Research subject
Meteorology; Climate
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-2152 (URN)
Available from: 2016-05-10 Created: 2016-05-10 Last updated: 2016-05-31Bibliographically approved
Dee, D. P., Uppala, S. M., Simmons, A. J., Berrisford, P., Poli, P., Kobayashi, S., . . . Vitart, F. (2011). The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 137(656), 553-597
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system
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2011 (English)In: Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, ISSN 0035-9009, E-ISSN 1477-870X, Vol. 137, no 656, p. 553-597Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

ERA-Interim is the latest global atmospheric reanalysis produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The ERA-Interim project was conducted in part to prepare for a new atmospheric reanalysis to replace ERA-40, which will extend back to the early part of the twentieth century. This article describes the forecast model, data assimilation method, and input datasets used to produce ERA-Interim, and discusses the performance of the system. Special emphasis is placed on various difficulties encountered in the production of ERA-40, including the representation of the hydrological cycle, the quality of the stratospheric circulation, and the consistency in time of the reanalysed fields. We provide evidence for substantial improvements in each of these aspects. We also identify areas where further work is needed and describe opportunities and objectives for future reanalysis projects at ECMWF. Copyright (C) 2011 Royal Meteorological Society

Keywords
ERA-40, 4D-Var, hydrological cycle, stratospheric circulation, observations, forecast model
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Research subject
Meteorology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-529 (URN)10.1002/qj.828 (DOI)000290450900001 ()
Available from: 2015-04-16 Created: 2015-04-15 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Hazeleger, W., Severijns, C., Semmler, T., Stefanescu, S., Yang, S., Wang, X., . . . Willén, U. (2010). EC-Earth A Seamless Earth-System Prediction Approach in Action. Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), 91(10), 1357-1363
Open this publication in new window or tab >>EC-Earth A Seamless Earth-System Prediction Approach in Action
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2010 (English)In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 91, no 10, p. 1357-1363Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
National Category
Climate Research
Research subject
Climate
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-555 (URN)10.1175/2010BAMS2877.1 (DOI)000284206300002 ()
Available from: 2015-04-22 Created: 2015-04-20 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Kållberg, P., Uppala, S. & Simmons, A. (2010). The real first weather satellite picture. Weather, 65(8), 211-213
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The real first weather satellite picture
2010 (English)In: Weather, ISSN 0043-1656, E-ISSN 1477-8696, Vol. 65, no 8, p. 211-213Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Research subject
Meteorology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-558 (URN)10.1002/wea.652 (DOI)000280904200010 ()
Available from: 2015-04-22 Created: 2015-04-20 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Kållberg, P. & Montani, A. (2006). A case study carried out with two different NWP systems. Natural hazards and earth system sciences, 6(5), 755-760
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A case study carried out with two different NWP systems
2006 (English)In: Natural hazards and earth system sciences, ISSN 1561-8633, E-ISSN 1684-9981, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 755-760Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A model intercomparison between two atmospheric models, the non-hydrostatic Lokal Modell (LM) and the hydrostatic HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM) is carried out for a one-week period, including a case of cyclogeneis leading to heavy precipitation over Northern Italy. The two models, very different in terms of data-assimilation and numerics, provide different results in terms of forecasts of surface fields. Opposite diurnal biases for the two models are found in terms of screen level temperatures. HIRLAM wind speed forecasts are too strong, while LM precipitation forecasts have larger extremes. The intercomparison exercise identifies some systematic differences in the weather products generated by the two systems and sheds some light on the biases of the two numerical weather prediction systems.

National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Research subject
Meteorology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-807 (URN)000241461100009 ()
Available from: 2015-04-22 Created: 2015-04-22 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Tyson, P. D., Garstang, M., Swap, R., Kållberg, P. & Edwards, M. (1996). An air transport climatology for subtropical southern Africa. International Journal of Climatology, 16(3), 265-291
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An air transport climatology for subtropical southern Africa
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1996 (English)In: International Journal of Climatology, ISSN 0899-8418, E-ISSN 1097-0088, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 265-291Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An air transport climatology is derived for subtropical southern Africa (Africa south of 15 degrees S) by classifying daily synoptic situations into predominant circulation types. The annual variation of these provides the basis for determining month-by-month transport. Percentage zonal transport in easterly and westerly directions, levels of transport, and times of transit are derived from forward trajectory analyses using European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data for a 7-year period. It is shown that semi-permanent subtropical continental anticyclones, transient mid-latitude ridging anticyclones and midlatitude westerly disturbances produce major transport into the south-western Indian Ocean in the Natal plume. Only quasistationary tropical easterly waves result in appreciable transport into the tropical South Atlantic Ocean in the Angolan plume. Total transport is a function of circulation type and frequency, as well as plume dimensions. Transport in continental highs follows an annual cycle reaching peak values in excess of 70 per cent in winter. That in easterly waves also exhibits an annual cycle, but one peaking in summer, when up to 55 per cent transport may occur in north-western regions. Transport in ridging highs and westerly perturbations is much less and occurs throughout the year, with a slight tendency to peak in spring. Recirculation of air is shown to be considerable when anticyclonic conditions prevail. Monthly, seasonal, and annual mass fluxes over and out of southern Africa are determined from transport fields, frequency of occurrence of circulation types and from measurements of aerosol concentrations. An annual mass flux of aerosols some 134 Mtons is generated over the subcontinent. About 60 Mtons year(-1) are deposited, and approximately 29 Mtons year(-1) are exported westward over the Atlantic Ocean and 45 Mtons year(-1) eastward over the Indian Ocean. Twenty-six million tons of the 74 Mtons of aerosols exported annually to the adjacent oceans on each coast are a product of recirculation. Deposition within 10 degrees latitude of the coast is nearly 10 times greater on the east than on the west coast.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UNIV VIRGINIA,DEPT ENVIRONM SCI,CHARLOTTESVILLE,VA 22903. SWEDISH METEOROL & HYDROL INST,S-60176 NORRKOPING,SWEDEN. S AFRICAN WEATHER BUR,PRETORIA,SOUTH AFRICA.: , 1996
Keywords
air transport, trajectories, southern Africa
National Category
Climate Research
Research subject
Climate
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-1640 (URN)A1996UD90700002 ()
Available from: 2016-01-26 Created: 2015-12-22 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Garstang, M., Tyson, P. D., Swap, R., Edwards, M., Kållberg, P. & Lindesay, J. A. (1996). Horizontal and vertical transport of air over southern Africa. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 101(D19), 23721-23736
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Horizontal and vertical transport of air over southern Africa
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1996 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, ISSN 2169-897X, E-ISSN 2169-8996, Vol. 101, no D19, p. 23721-23736Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Tropospheric air trajectories that occurred during the Southern African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI) in August-October 1992 are described in terms of a circulation classification scheme and the vertical stability of the atmosphere. Three major and frequently occurring stable discontinuities are found to control vertical transport of aerosols in the subtropical atmosphere at the end of the dry season. Of these, the main subsidence-induced feature is a spatially ubiquitous and temporally persistent absolutely stable layer at an altitude of about 5 km (3.5 km above the interior plateau elevation). This effective obstacle to vertical mixing is observed to persist without break for up to 40 days. Below this feature an absolutely stable layer at 3 km (1.5 km above the surface) prevails on and off at the top of the surface mixing layer for up to 7 days at a time, being broken by the passage of regularly occurring westerly wave disturbances. Above the middle-level discontinuity a further absolutely stable layer is frequently discerned at an altitude of about 8 km. It is shown that five basic modes can be used to describe horizontal aerosol transportation fields over southern Africa. Dominating these is the anticyclone mode which results in frequent recirculation at spatial scales varying from hundreds to thousands of kilometers. In exiting the anticyclonic circulation, transport on the northern periphery of the system is to the west over the Atlantic Ocean via a semistationary easterly wave over the western part of the subcontinent. On the southern periphery, wave perturbations in the westerly enhance transports which exit the subcontinent to the east into the Indian Ocean. Independently derived data suggest that during SAFARI only 4% of the total transport of air from three locations south of 18 degrees 8 was into the Atlantic Ocean. Over 90% of the transport was into the Indian Ocean across 35 degrees E. This result reflects circulation fields typical of the extremely dry conditions prevailing in 1992. The integrated effect of the control exerted by atmospheric stability on vertical mixing, on the one hand, and the nature of the horizontal circulation fields, on the other, is to produce a distinctive suite of transport patterns that go a long way to explain the observed high concentrations of tropospheric aerosols and trace gases observed over the subcontinent in winter and spring, as well as over the tropical South Atlantic and southwestern Indian Oceans.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UNIV WITWATERSRAND, CLIMATOL RES GRP, ZA-2000 JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA. S AFRICAN WEATHER BUR, ZA-0001 PRETORIA, SOUTH AFRICA. SWEDISH METEOROL & HYDROL INST, S-60176 NORRKOPING, SWEDEN.: , 1996
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Research subject
Meteorology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-1625 (URN)10.1029/95JD00844 (DOI)A1996VQ49300021 ()
Available from: 2016-01-26 Created: 2015-12-22 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Swap, R., Garstang, M., Macko, S. A., Tyson, P. D., Maenhaut, W., Artaxo, P., . . . Talbot, R. (1996). The long-range transport of southern African aerosols the tropical South Atlantic. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 101(D19), 23777-23791
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The long-range transport of southern African aerosols the tropical South Atlantic
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1996 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, ISSN 2169-897X, E-ISSN 2169-8996, Vol. 101, no D19, p. 23777-23791Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Two episodes of long-range aerosol transport (4000 km) from southern Africa into the central tropical South Atlantic are documented. Stable nitrogen isotope analysis, multielemental analysis, and meteorological observations on local and regional scales are used to describe the observed surface aerosol chemistry during these transport episodes. The chemical, kinematic, and thermodynamic analyses suggest that for the central tropical South Atlantic, west Africa between 0 degrees and 10 degrees S is the primary air mass source region (over 50%) during austral spring. Over 70% of all air arriving in the lower and middle troposphere in the central tropical South Atlantic comes from a broad latitudinal band extending from 20 degrees S to 10 degrees N. Air coming from the east subsides and is trapped below the midlevel and trade wind inversion layers. Air from the west originates at higher levels (500 hPa) and contributes less than 30% of the air masses arriving in the central tropical South Atlantic. The source types of aerosols and precursor trace gases extend over a broad range of biomes from desert and savanna to the rain forest. During austral spring, over this broad region, processes include production from vegetation, soils, and biomass burning. The aerosol composition of air masses over and the atmospheric chemistry of the central South Atlantic is a function of the supply of biogenic, biomass burning, and aeolian emissions from tropical Africa. Rainfall is a common controlling factor for all three sources. Rain, in turn, is governed by the large-scale circulations which show pronounced interannual variability. The field measurements were taken in an extremely dry year and reflect the circulation and transport fields typical of these conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
STATE UNIV GHENT, INST NUCL SCI, B-9000 GHENT, BELGIUM. UNIV SAO PAULO, INST PHYS, SAO PAULO, SP, BRAZIL. SWEDISH METEOROL & HYDROL INST, S-60176 NORRKOPING, SWEDEN. UNIV NEW HAMPSHIRE, INST STUDY EARTH OCEANS & SPACE, DURHAM, NH 03824 USA.: , 1996
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Research subject
Meteorology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-1626 (URN)10.1029/95JD01049 (DOI)A1996VQ49300026 ()
Available from: 2016-01-26 Created: 2015-12-22 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
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