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Publications (10 of 13) Show all publications
Wu, L., Hristov, T. & Rutgersson, A. (2018). Vertical Profiles of Wave-Coherent Momentum Flux and Velocity Variances in the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 48(3), 625-641
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vertical Profiles of Wave-Coherent Momentum Flux and Velocity Variances in the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer
2018 (English)In: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 625-641Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Norrköping: , 2018
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Research subject
Oceanography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-4658 (URN)10.1175/JPO-D-17-0052.1 (DOI)000430757700009 ()
Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-05-16 Last updated: 2018-05-16Bibliographically approved
Jeworrek, J., Wu, L., Dieterich, C. & Rutgersson, A. (2017). Characteristics of convective snow bands along the Swedish east coast. Earth System Dynamics, 8, 163-175
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characteristics of convective snow bands along the Swedish east coast
2017 (English)In: Earth System Dynamics, ISSN 2190-4979, E-ISSN 2190-4987, Vol. 8, p. 163-175Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Climate Research
Research subject
Climate
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-4031 (URN)10.5194/esd-8-163-2017 (DOI)000395462200001 ()
Available from: 2017-03-29 Created: 2017-03-29 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Omstedt, A., Edman, M., Claremar, B. & Rutgersson, A. (2015). Modelling the contributions to marine acidification from deposited SOx, NOx, and NHx in the Baltic Sea: Past and present situations. Continental Shelf Research, 111, 234-249
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling the contributions to marine acidification from deposited SOx, NOx, and NHx in the Baltic Sea: Past and present situations
2015 (English)In: Continental Shelf Research, ISSN 0278-4343, E-ISSN 1873-6955, Vol. 111, p. 234-249Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have examined the effects of historical atmospheric depositions of sulphate, nitrate, and ammonium from land and shipping on the acid-base balance in the Baltic Sea. The modelling considers the 1750-2014 period, when land and ship emissions changed greatly, with increasing carbon dioxide concentrations, SOx, NOx, and NHx emissions, and nutrient loads. The present results indicate that Baltic Sea acidification due to the atmospheric deposition of acids peaked around 1980, with a pH cumulative decrease of approximately 10(-2) in surface waters. This is one order of magnitude less than the cumulative acidification due to increased atmospheric CO2. The acidification contribution of shipping is one order of magnitude less than that of land emissions. However, the pH trend due to atmospheric acids has started to reverse due to reduced land emissions, though the effect of shipping is ongoing. The effect of strong atmospheric acids on Baltic Sea water depends on the region and period studied. The largest total alkalinity sink per surface area is in the south-western Baltic Sea where shipping is intense. Considering the entire Baltic Sea over the 2001-2010 period, the pH changes are approximately -3 x 10(-3) to -11 x 10(-3) and -4 x 10(-4) to -16 x 10(-4) pH units attributable to all emissions and ship emissions only, respectively. The corresponding changes in total alkalinity are approximately -10 to -30 mu mol kg(-1) and -1 to -4 mu mol kg(-1) attributable to all emissions and ship emissions only, respectively. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

National Category
Climate Research
Research subject
Climate
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-1933 (URN)10.1016/j.csr.2015.08.024 (DOI)000367119100012 ()
Available from: 2016-04-29 Created: 2016-03-03 Last updated: 2018-05-22Bibliographically approved
Rutgersson, A., Jaagus, J., Schenk, F., Stendel, M., Bärring, L., Briede, A., . . . Wibig, J. (2015). Recent Change-Atmosphere. In: : (pp. 69-97).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recent Change-Atmosphere
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2015 (English)Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This chapter describes observed changes in atmospheric conditions in the Baltic Sea drainage basin over the past 200-300 years. The Baltic Sea area is relatively unique with a dense observational network covering an extended time period. Data analysis covers an early period with sparse and relatively uncertain measurements, a period with well-developed synoptic stations, and a final period with 30+ years of satellite data and sounding systems. The atmospheric circulation in the European/Atlantic sector has an important role in the regional climate of the Baltic Sea basin, especially the North Atlantic Oscillation. Warming has been observed, particularly in spring, and has been stronger in the northern regions. There has been a northward shift in storm tracks, as well as increased cyclonic activity in recent decades and an increased persistence of weather types. There are no long-term trends in annual wind statistics since the nineteenth century, but much variation at the (multi-)decadal timescale. There are also no long-term trends in precipitation, but an indication of longer precipitation periods and possibly an increased risk of extreme precipitation events.

Series
SECOND ASSESSMENT OF CLIMATE CHANGE FOR THE BALTIC SEA BASIN
National Category
Climate Research
Research subject
Climate
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-2038 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-16006-1_4 (DOI)000367908100007 ()
Available from: 2016-05-03 Created: 2016-05-02 Last updated: 2016-05-03Bibliographically approved
Hennemuth, B., Rutgersson, A., Bumke, K., Clemens, M., Omstedt, A., Jacob, D. & Smedman, A. S. (2003). Net precipitation over the Baltic Sea for one year using models and data-based methods. Tellus. Series A, Dynamic meteorology and oceanography, 55(4), 352-367
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Net precipitation over the Baltic Sea for one year using models and data-based methods
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2003 (English)In: Tellus. Series A, Dynamic meteorology and oceanography, ISSN 0280-6495, E-ISSN 1600-0870, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 352-367Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Precipitation and evaporation over the Baltic Sea are calculated for a one-year period from September 1998 to August 1999 by four different tools, the two atmospheric regional models HIRLAM and REMO, the oceanographic model PROBE-Baltic in combination with the SMHI (1 x 1)degrees database and Interpolated Fields, based essentially on ship measurements. The investigated period is slightly warmer and wetter than the climatological mean. Correlation coefficients of the differently calculated latent heat fluxes vary between 0.81 (HIRLAM and REMO) and 0.56 (SMHI/PROBE-Baltic and Interpolated Fields), while the correlation coefficients between model fluxes and measured fluxes range from 0.61 and 0.78. Deviations of simulated and interpolated monthly precipitation over the Baltic Sea are less than 5 mm in the southern Baltic and up to 20 mm near the Finnish coast for the one-year period. The methods simulate the annual cycle of precipitation and evaporation of the Baltic Proper in a similar manner with a broad maximum of net precipitation in spring and early summer and a minimum in late summer. The annual averages of net precipitation of the Baltic Proper range from 57 mm (REMO) to 262 turn (HIRLAM) and for the Baltic Sea from 96 turn (SMHI/PROBE-Baltic) to 209 rum (HIRLAM). This range is considered to give the uncertainty of present-day determination of the net precipitation over the Baltic Sea.

National Category
Climate Research
Research subject
Climate
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-1343 (URN)10.1034/j.1600-0870.2003.00020.x (DOI)000184687000006 ()
Available from: 2015-08-17 Created: 2015-07-29 Last updated: 2018-05-22Bibliographically approved
Rutgersson, A., Omstedt, A. & Räisänen, J. (2002). Net precipitation over the Baltic Sea during present and future climate conditions. Climate Research (CR), 22(1), 27-39
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Net precipitation over the Baltic Sea during present and future climate conditions
2002 (English)In: Climate Research (CR), ISSN 0936-577X, E-ISSN 1616-1572, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 27-39Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

By using a process-oriented ocean model forced with data from a gridded synoptic database, net precipitation values (precipitation minus evaporation) over the Baltic Sea are obtained. For a range of realistic meteorological forcing the average annual value obtained from an 18 yr (1981-1998) simulation ranges between 1100 and 2500 m(3) s(-1). The monthly variations are significant with the highest values occurring in early summer and even negative values in late autumn. Ice is an important factor, and the net precipitation is close to zero in the southern basins with no ice. Calculated net precipitation for a 98 yr period (1901-1998) using river runoff and maximum ice extent indicates that the investigated 18 yr period was wetter than the almost 100 yr climate mean. A realistic climate estimate of net precipitation during the 20th century is estimated to be 1500 +/-1000 m(3) s(-1). The evaluation of 2 present day regional climate simulations indicated high precipitation, low evaporation, and thus excessive net precipitation compared to the climate estimate from this investigation. When simulating the effect of increased greenhouse gases, the change in net precipitation was positive but small due to the compensating effects of increased precipitation and increased evaporation associated with increased temperature and reduced ice.

Keywords
water cycle, Baltic Sea, precipitation, evaporation, climate
National Category
Climate Research
Research subject
Climate
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-1377 (URN)10.3354/cr022027 (DOI)000178207000003 ()
Available from: 2015-08-06 Created: 2015-07-29 Last updated: 2018-05-22Bibliographically approved
Doescher, R., Willen, U., Jones, C., Rutgersson, A., Meier, M., Hansson, U. & Graham, P. (2002). The development of the regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model RCAO. Boreal environment research, 7(3), 183-192
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The development of the regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model RCAO
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2002 (English)In: Boreal environment research, ISSN 1239-6095, E-ISSN 1797-2469, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 183-192Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A regional coupled ocean-atmosphere-ice general circulation model for northern Europe is introduced for climate study purposes. The Baltic Sea is interactively coupled. The coupled model is validated in a 5-year hind-cast experiment with a focus on surface quantities and atmosphere-ocean heat fluxes. The coupled sea surface temperature matches observations well. The system is free of drift, does not need flux corrections and is suitable for multi-year climate runs. With flux forcing from the atmospheric model the regional ocean model gives sea surface temperatures statistically equivalent to the uncoupled ocean model forced by observations. Other oceanic surface quantities do not reach this quality in combination with the current atmosphere model. A strong dependence of sea ice extent on details of the atmospheric radiation scheme is found. Our standard scheme leads to an overestimation of ice, most likely due to a negative bias of long-wave radiation. There is indication that a latent heat flux bias in fall contributes to the ice problem. Other atmosphere-ocean heat fluxes are generally realistic in the long term mean.

National Category
Climate Research
Research subject
Climate
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-1370 (URN)000221371600003 ()
Available from: 2015-08-07 Created: 2015-07-29 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Rutgersson, A., Smedman, A. S. & Omstedt, A. (2001). Measured and simulated latent and sensible heat fluxes at two marine sites in the Baltic Sea. Boundary-layer Meteorology, 99(1), 53-84
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measured and simulated latent and sensible heat fluxes at two marine sites in the Baltic Sea
2001 (English)In: Boundary-layer Meteorology, ISSN 0006-8314, E-ISSN 1573-1472, Vol. 99, no 1, p. 53-84Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, turbulent heat flux data from two sites within the Baltic Sea are compared with estimates from two models. The main focus is on the latent heat flux. The measuring sites are located on small islands close to the islands of Bornholm and Gotland. Both sites have a wide wind direction sector with undisturbed over-water fetch. Mean parameters and direct fluxes were measured on masts during May to December 1998. The two models used in this study are the regional-scale atmospheric model HIRLAM and the ocean model PROBE-Baltic. It is shown that both models overestimate the sensible and latent heat fluxes. The overestimation can, to a large extent, be explained by errors in the air-water temperature and humidity differences. From comparing observed and modelled data, the estimated 8-month mean errors in temperature and humidity are up to 1 degreesC and 1 g kg(-1),respectively. The mean errors in the sensible and latent heat fluxes for the same period are approximately 15 and 30 W m(-2), respectively. Bulk transfer coefficients used for calculating heat and humidity fluxes at the surface were shown to agree rather well with the measurements, at least for the unstable data. For stable stratification, the scatter in data is generally large, and it appears that the bulk formulation chosen overestimates turbulent heat fluxes.

Keywords
air-sea interaction, BALTEX, Baltic Sea measurements, bulk transfer coefficients, flux parameterisation, turbulent heat fluxes
National Category
Climate Research Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Research subject
Climate; Oceanography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-1479 (URN)10.1023/A:1018799227854 (DOI)000167734500003 ()
Available from: 2015-08-27 Created: 2015-08-17 Last updated: 2018-05-22Bibliographically approved
Rutgersson, A., Bumke, K., Clemens, M., Foltescu, V., Lindau, R., Michelson, D. & Omstedt, A. (2001). Precipitation estimates over the Baltic Sea: Present state of the art. Nordic Hydrology, 32(4-5), 285-314
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Precipitation estimates over the Baltic Sea: Present state of the art
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2001 (English)In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 32, no 4-5, p. 285-314Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Precipitation is one of the main components in the water balance, and probably the component determined with the greatest uncertainties. In the present paper we focus on precipitation (mainly rain) over the Baltic Sea as a part of the BAL-TEX project to examine the present state of the art concerning different precipitation estimates over that area. Several methods are used, with the focus on 1) interpolation of available synoptic stations; 2) a mesoscale analysis system including synoptic, automatic, and climate stations, as well as weather radar and an atmospheric model; and 3) measurements performed on ships. The investigated time scales are monthly and yearly and also some long-term considerations are discussed. The comparison shows that the differences between most of the estimates, when averaged over an extended period and a larger area, are in the order of 10-20%, which is in the same range as the correction of the synoptic gauge measurements due to wind and evaporation losses. In all data sets using gauge data it is important to include corrections for high winds. To improve the structure of precipitation over sea more focus is to be put on the use of radar data and combinations of radar data and other data. Interpolation methods that do not consider orographic effects must treat areas with large horizontal precipitation gradients with care. Due to the large variability in precipitation in time and space, it is important to use long time periods for climate estimates of precipitation. Ship measurements are a valuable contribution to precipitation information over sea, especially for seasonal and annual time scales.

National Category
Climate Research Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Research subject
Climate; Oceanography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-1494 (URN)000173580900002 ()
Available from: 2015-08-24 Created: 2015-08-17 Last updated: 2018-05-22Bibliographically approved
Doescher, R., Hansson, U., Jones, C., Meier, M., Rutgersson, A. & Willén, U. (2001). The development of the coupled ocean-atmosphere model RCAO. In: J. Meywerk (Ed.), Third study conference on BALTEX: . Paper presented at third study conference on BALTEX, Mariehamn, Åland, Finland, July 2-6, 2001 (pp. 45-46).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The development of the coupled ocean-atmosphere model RCAO
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2001 (English)In: Third study conference on BALTEX / [ed] J. Meywerk, 2001, p. 45-46Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Series
International BALTEX Secretariat publication series, GKSS, Geesthacht, Germany
National Category
Climate Research
Research subject
Climate; Climate
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-4997 (URN)
Conference
third study conference on BALTEX, Mariehamn, Åland, Finland, July 2-6, 2001
Available from: 2018-10-24 Created: 2018-10-24 Last updated: 2018-10-24Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7656-1881

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