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  • Edman, Moa
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Sahlberg, Jörgen
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    The Swedish Coastal zone Model (SCM)2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SMHI develops and maintains a model system for water quality calculations in coastal zone waters around Sweden. It is called the Swedish Coastal zone Model (SCM) and has previously been presented in Sahlberg (2009). Since that report was published the model has been further developed and it is now also used in scientific research. This now calls for an updated report.The SCM is a coupled 1-dimensional physical and biogeochemical model. The model calculates the vertical profiles of all its variables and assumes that they are horizontally homogeneous in the studied area. In order to resolve horizontal variations, a region is divided into several smaller sub-regions, called basins, connected by sounds. Through these sound connections both water and mass of different constituents are exchanged. The basins in SCM are identical to the national water bodies defined in accordance with the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The vertical resolution is half a metre in the uppermost layers, one metre in the 4-70 m interval, and two metres between 70-100 m. Below 100 m the layer thickness increases to 5 m and to 10 m below 250 m.The physical part of SCM consists of the equation solver Program for Boundary Layers in the Environment (PROBE, Svensson (1998)), but also several subroutines which calculates, e.g., insolation, ice-cover, and the exchanges between basins. The exchanges that connect the modelled basins are assumed to be governed by baroclinic and barotropic pressure gradient between the coupled basins.The biogeochemical model is the Swedish Coastal Ocean BIogeochemical model (SCOBI, Marmefelt et al. (2000)). SCOBI is a process-oriented model that includes marine nitrogen, phosphorous and oxygen dynamics, as well as a simple representation of plankton dynamics typical for the Baltic Sea. It calculates 11 variables: zooplankton, three functional phytoplankton groups, detritus, nitrate, ammonium, phosphate, oxygen, benthic nitrogen and benthic phosphorus. SCOBI uses the O2 variable to also, indirectly, model H2S. H2S is represented as a negative oxygen concentration, i.e. the oxygen needed to oxidize a certain accumulated H2S concentration, which can also be considered as an oxygen debt.The mixing and advection of the nine pelagic biogeochemical variables are calculated by PROBE, while SCOBI calculates the process rates which decide how matter is exchanged between the 11 biogeochemical variables, and also the vertical transfers between the SCM’s grid cells due to the sinking of phytoplankton and detritus, i.e. sedimentation.SCM needs input data from the atmosphere (weather variables and deposition on nitrogen and phosphorus), from land (land run-off and point sources, e.g. sewage treatment plant and industries) and also from the open ocean.The model is part of the Swedish water management, but it is also used within research project which results in peer reviewed scientific publications.

  • Noda, Jun
    et al.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Kong, Xiangrui
    Gustafsson, Torbjoern L.
    Kovacevik, Borka
    Svane, Maria
    Pettersson, Jan B. C.
    Aerosol from Biomass Combustion in Northern Europe: Influence of Meteorological Conditions and Air Mass History2019In: Atmosphere, ISSN 2073-4433, E-ISSN 2073-4433, Vol. 10, no 12, article id 789Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Ruvalcaba Baroni, Itzel
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department.
    Palastanga, Virginia
    Slomp, Caroline P.
    Enhanced Organic Carbon Burial in Sediments of Oxygen Minimum Zones Upon Ocean Deoxygenation2020In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id 839Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Schöld, Sofie
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Gudmundsson, Ingrid
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Lind, Lisa
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Hieronymus, Magnus
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Jönsson, Anette
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Breviere, Emilie
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Hur kan Sverige rusta för stigande hav?: Sammanfattning och slutsatser från Workshop on Sea Level Rise; IPCC SROCC Science and Planning for Climate Adaptation2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I november 2019 arrangerade SMHI en workshop på temat stigande havsnivåer. Deltog gjorde bland annat representanter från nationella och internationella myndigheter, kommuner, universitet och forskningsinstitut. Under workshoppen diskuterades den senaste forskningen inom området, kopplat till klimatanpassning och samhällsplanering för stigande havsnivåer. Inbjudna föreläsare berättade om klimatanpassning i Skandinavien och om det aktuella kunskapsläget.Workshoppens syfte var att diskutera FN:s klimatpanels specialrapport ”Havet och kryosfären i ett förändrat klimat”, att identifiera de utmaningar och behov som olika samhällsaktörer stöter på i arbetet med stigande havsnivåer, samt att hitta möjliga vägar framåt för att möta dessa. Under workshoppen hölls diskussioner på olika teman, bland annat strategier för klimatanpassning och metoder för att skatta extrema högvattenhändelser i ett framtida klimat. Vid ett rundabordssamtal diskuterades behov av riktlinjer, information och kunskapsunderlag i relation till havsnivåfrågan.Deltagarna var eniga om att kunskap om osäkerheter kopplat till framtida havsnivåer och högvattenhändelser är av stor vikt för att klimatplanering ska kunna genomföras på ett robust sätt. Projektioner för havsnivåhöjning på en längre tidshorisont än 2100 lyftes också fram som något som bör belysas i syfte att tydliggöra vikten av utsläppsminskning och långsiktig planering. Annat som diskuterades var behovet av en fortlöpande dialog mellan aktörer som arbetar med att ta fram riktlinjer och kunskapsunderlag, samt att man måste hitta strategier för att hantera det faktum att den vetenskapliga informationen om klimatförändringarna både innehåller osäkerheter och är i ständig utveckling.I rapportens avslutande kapitel ger SMHI exempel på hur vi skulle kunna bidra till att uppfylla de identifierade behoven och möta de utmaningar som samhället står inför när havet stiger längs våra kuster.SMHI vill rikta ett särskilt tack till Anders Rimne, Anna Wåhlin, Carlo Sass Sørensen, Cathrine Andersen, Gunnel Göransson, Kristian Breili, Michalis I. Vousdoukas, Roderik Van de Wal och Sönke Dangendorf som höll presentationer under workshoppen. Vi vill även tacka alla som deltog och bidrog till intressanta diskussioner och värdefulla insikter.

  • Benas, Nikos
    et al.
    Meirink, Jan Fokke
    Karlsson, Karl-Göran
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Stengel, Martin
    Stammes, Piet
    Satellite observations of aerosols and clouds over southern China from 2006 to 2015: analysis of changes and possible interaction mechanisms2020In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 457-474Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Ivarsson, Karl-Ivar
    SMHI, Core Services.
    A Score for Probability Forecasts of Binary Events Based on the User's Cost-Loss Relations2020In: Weather and forecasting, ISSN 0882-8156, E-ISSN 1520-0434, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 113-127Article in journal (Refereed)
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